- Vamshavali–principle source of Chamba’s History.
- Vamshavali-contains a list of names of Rajas.
- Epigraphical records and copper plate titles also provide important information about Chamba History.
- In Chamba, these monuments survived Mohammadan invasions. These monuments are found in abundant and better preserved than others in Punjab Himalayas.
- Copperplates– issued by the early rulers of Chamba Rajtarangini are still preserved.
- Most important and ancient are Rock inscriptions. The 7th-century inscriptions are the oldest inscriptions (in Gupta Characters).
EARLY HISTORY OF CHAMBA (Chamba History Notes)
- Long before the Indo Greeks and Saka-Kushanas, ancient tribal republics like the Kunindas, the Trigartas, the Kulutas, the Yaudheyas, the Audumbaras, the Venkas, the Kiras were established in hills.
Later Kunindas, Yaudhevas, Kulutas, and Trigartas reemerged as powerful democracies in the hills.
- After Gupta Supremacy in hills, Thakuras and Ranas established their own petty principalities. These were later on known as Apthakurai and Ranhun
- A feudatory chief of upper Ravi valley, named ‘Ashadha’ of Gun, during the reign of Meru Verman of Chamba (A.D. 680-700)
In the lower Ravi valley and Pangi, Ranas and Thakuras ruled independently. In the 10th and 11th century, they became subject to Chamba.
- The Chamba Rajas belong to the Suryavanshi line of Rajputs. Accordingly, their Vamshavali begins from Vishnu or Narayana.
Their original is said to have been in Ayodhya, but at a very early period, they moved and settled in Kalpa.
[Note:- Rama(from Ramayana) was 3rd descendent.]
- According to the Vamshavali, it started with the name of Maru, who was then the head of the family. Maru had three sons.
- His third and youngest son, Meru founded the Bharmaur and made it the capital of the Chamba.
- It is said that after founding the state, He(Meru) made it over to his son and returned to Kalpa and became a ‘Sadhu‘(ascetic).
- Jaistambh, Jalstambh and Mahastambh ruled after the Meru.
Aaditya Varman (A.D. 620)
- In Vamshavali he is named Adi Varman. He assumed the suffix of ‘Varman‘ for the first time.
- Rajas of Brahmpura, Ladakh, Suket, Bushahar, Kangra, and Bangahal made Ganesh Pal the Raja of Kullu because Brahmo Pal of Kullu left no legitimate sons.
Bala Varman (A.D. 640)
- His name does not appear in the Vamshavali by some clerical error. But he was called as the grandfather of Meru Varman in two of the Brahmpura inscriptions.
Diwakar Varman (A.D. 660)
- In Bharmaur inscription, he name occurs as Divakara Varman While in the Vamshavali and the Chatrari inscription, his name occurs as Deva Varman.
Meru Varman (A.D. 680)
- He is famous as the ‘Shahjahan‘ of Chamba.
- Meru Varman was first to extend the boundaries of the state by conquest. For his expeditions, he dedicated the idol of Shakti Devi in gratitude for help against his enemies.
- At ‘Gun’ an inscribed stone erected by a feudatory of Meru Varman named Ashadha, it is clear that Meru’s rule extended from down to the Ravi Valley up to the Chamba town.
- In a war with Kullu, Meru Varman killed Sri Dateshwar(Kullu Raja).
- After the war, Kullu remained under Chamba.
- Meru Varman was also a great patron of temple arts. He built the ‘Mani-Mahesha temple‘, ‘Lakshana Devi temple‘, ‘Ganesha temple‘and ‘Narsingha temple’.
- Meru Varman built the Surajmukha shrine at Bharmaur and according to custom, whenever a Chamba Raja visits Bharmaur, he must first visit the temple and worship at this temple before proceeding to his residence.
- During the reign of Meru Varman, ‘Gugga‘ was a master craftsman.
Ajia Varman (A.D. 760)
According to Gaddi tradition, they(Gaddi) came from Delhi during the reign of Ajia Varman and settled in Bharmaur.
- He initiated his son(Swarn Varman) into the art of governance.
Lakshmi Varman (A.D. 800)
- During his reign, an epidemic(cholera) broke out in his state and a large number of people fell victim which almost depopulate the state.
- Tibetans(Kiras) took advantage of the epidemic and occupied the Chamba. Kiragrama(now called Baijnath) was also under the control of Tibetans.
- Lakshmi Varman was killed by Kiratas.
- After the death of Lakshmi Varman, Kullu obtained independence with the help of Raja of Bushahr.
Mushan Varman (A.D. 820)
- Lakshmi Varman died childlessly, but his Queen was pregnant.
- On the death of the Raja Lakshmi Varman, the ‘Wazir‘ and ‘Purohit‘ had the Rani put into a palki and carried towards Kangra to save her.
- On way at village of ‘Garoh‘ in upper Ravi valley, she felt the labor pain. She gave birth to a son in a cave that left him there due to fear of his capture and resumed her journey.
- When Wazir and Purohit came to know the reality, returned to the cave and found the young prince, surrounded by a number of mice and keeping guard over him.
- He was named Mushan after this. Rani with prince Mushan stayed in the house of a Brahmin.
- One day, Brahmin recognized Mushan’s footprint as he belongs to the royal family and introduced them to the Raja of Suket. The Raja of Suket made arrangements for Mushan’s education, got his daughter married to Mushan.
- Suket helps him to regain his kingdom from invaders.
- Mushan also received ‘Pargana‘ as Jagir from Suket.
- In his kingdom, Mushan Varman prohibited the killing of mice. Chamba royal family still obtained this custom.
Sahil Varman (A.D. 920)
- At the beginning of his reign, he fought a twelve-year war against Kullu. He shifted his capital from Brahmpura to Chamba.
- He was childless. Shortly, Brahmpura was visited by 84 yogis, and they blessed him with ten sons. After some time, ten sons and a daughter named Champavati were born. He named his new town Chamba after princess Champavati.
- The Chamba town was founded on the territory of Brahmin Charpatnath with the promise that eight Chaklis-Chamba copper coins be given in perpetuity on the occasion of every marriage in the town.
- For convenient water supply in Chamba town, Raja ordered a watercourse to be made from the Sarohta stream. But water refused to enter the channel made for it.
- It is said that the spirit of the stream wants the life sacrifice of Rani or her son. Another account says that Raja himself saw all this in a dream.
- The Rani Naina Devi got ready to sacrifice. She was taken to the spot near the village(Balota), where Rani was buried alive. When Rani was buried in, the water began to flow.
- A fair called ‘Suhi Mela‘ is held in Rani’s memory where only women and children are allowed to participate. Raja also constructed a shrine on top of the hill in her memory. Rani Sharda of Jit Singh constructed the straps to the shrine.
- Princess Champavati was of a religious nature and used to visit a ‘Sadhu’ for conversation, suspicion developed into the Raja’s mind and he followed her with a drawn sword in his hand up to an empty house. When he entered the house, a voice came from the stillness, telling him that his child had been taken from him as a punishment for his suspicion. Raja was also commanded to build a temple where she is worshipped as Goddess.
- This temple is regarded as the family temple of the Chamba Royal Family and Mela is also held there in the month of Vaishakh.
- He built- Lakshmi Narayan or Vishnu, Chandrasekhar at Saho and Chandragupta and Kameshwara temples.
- Chakli Copper coins with the pierced ear(dedicated to Yogi Charpatnath) came into practice.
- 1 chakli is 1/5 that of Anna.
- Raja also constructed small temples in the memory of 84 Yogis, who had stayed in Brahmpura for this reason this area is called the Chaurasi.
Yugankar Varman (A.D. 940)
There is nothing much in record about Yugankar Varman in the chronicle.
His queen was Tribhuvanrekha Devi. The temple of the Narsingha at Brahmpura was erected by the queen.
- Yugankar Varman himself erected the temple of Ishwar-Gaurja (Gauri Shankar) in Chamba near the temple of Lakshmi Narayana.
Dodak Varman (A.D. 980)
- His name in stone inscription of Basu as Dagadha.
- He was given the title Parmeshwar and Parambhaktkarak.
- He also installed an image of Lord Kartikay.
Salvahan Varman (A.D. 1040)
- His name appears only in three copper plates, not in Vamshavali.
- In about AD 1060, Ananta Deva of Kashmir defeated Salvahan Varman(Salvahan died fighting Anant deva). Chamba became tributary of Kashmir and his(Salvahan) son Soma Varman was placed as Raja.
- According to the two inscribed fountain slabs of Salvahan Varaman’s reign found in the ‘Sai‘ and ‘Tissa‘ pargana of Churah reveal that Churah was part of ‘Balor‘ (Basholi) state.
Soma Varman (A. D. 1060)
- In Rajatarangini it is mentioned that “Asta“, Raja of Chamba visited Kashmir in the winter of A.D. 1087-88.
- Chamba was still the tributory of Kashmir.
Jasata Varman (A.D. 1105)
- In A.D. 1101, He supported his cousin Harsha, when Kashmir was invaded by the princes of the ‘Lohara family‘. For this help to Harsha, he was taken prisoner by Sussala, in the temple at Vijeshwara.
- In A.D. 1112, He gave refugee to grandson of Harsh, Bhikshachara against Sussala.
- An inscribed stone of his reign also founed at Loh-Tikri in Churah.
Udaya Varman (A.D. 1120)
- He changed loyalties from Bhikshachara to Sussala of Kashmir and his sisters to the Sussala family. Both of his sisters became sati when Sussala died.
- Due to unsettled conditions in Kashmir, Chamba took this opportunity to assert its Independence.
Lalit Varman (A.D. 1143)
- In slab inscriptions of ‘Debri Kothi‘ and ‘Salhi‘ in the Saichu Nala, Pangi. In these inscriptions, Pangi is called ‘Pangati‘.
- He is described as Maharajadhiraja.
Vijaya Varman (A.D. 1175)
During his reign, the boundaries of Chamba were extended. He also invaded areas of Kashmir and Ladakh.
His invasion got easy success due to disorder and confusion prevailing after the attack of Mohammed Ghori in 1191-1193 AD on India.
Anand Varman (A.D. 1475)
He was born from Rani Sampurna Devi.
Anand Varman was very religious in nature and was believed to have miraculous powers.
- He died in A.D. 1512.
Ganesh Varman (A.D. 1512)
- The use of the suffix ‘Singh‘ in the Chamba family was suggested in plates of this era.
- He built the fort of Ganeshgarh. Before the death of Ganesh Varman in A.D. 1559, Mughal’s influence had started making itself felt in Chamba.
Pratap Singh Varman (A.D. 1559)
- During his reign, a war broke out between the Chamba and Kangra. The Raja of Kangra at that time was ‘Chandrapal‘.
- In this Battle, Kangra got defeated and Guler was also occupied by Chamba forces.
- He was contemporary of Emperor Akbar and Chamba was also a tributary of Mughals.
- Small districts of Kangra ‘Chari‘ and ‘Gharoh‘, near the Chamba border, were annexed by Chamba.
- Todar Mal was appointed by Akbar to acquire the Rihlu area of Chamba.
- Ganesh Varman died in 1586.
- He was first to use suffix ‘Singh‘ in the Chamba dynasty.
Balbhadra (A.D. 1589)
- He was famous as Bali-Karan because of generosity and making charity.
- He gifted land to Lakshmi Narayan temple.
- On request of officials, his elder son Janardhan removed his father from the throne because of his father’s excess charity.
- Balbhadra was deported to the village of ‘Baraia‘ But Balbhadra continued distributing his lavish gifts and the whole building was gifted away along with the lands.
- After Janardhan’s succession to the throne, a war broke out between him and Suraj Mal of Nurpur. The war went for twelve years without either side gain.
- In the year 1618, Suraj Mal revolted against Mughal and forced by Mughal army to take refuge in Chamba where he was killed by Janardhan and his brother.
- Suraj Mal succeeded by Jagat Singh who assist Mughal forces in siege of Kangra fort in AD 1620.
- In 1623 a descive war was fought between Nurpur and Chamba at ‘Dahlog‘ in which Janardhan’s brother Bishambar was killed.
- Later, Janardhan was also killed by Jagat Singh in Delhi, when he(Janardhan) was invited to have negotiation after war.
- After that Jagat Singh ruled Chamba for almost 20 years and during this time Balbhadra was installed as Raja.
- In 1622, Jahangir visited Kangra and returned via Nurpur. Chamba Raja Janardhan and his brother ‘Bishambar’ also visited the Emperor.
- Janardhan left no heir but his Rani was pregnent and on learning this, Jagat Singh ordered to kill infant if proved to be a boy and if girl, she was to be married in Nurpur Family.
- when the boy(Prithvi Singh) was born, Batlu(a nurse) smuggled him out and sent him to Mandi.
- When the child Prithvi Singh was born, his nurse named ‘Batlu’, is said to have smuggled him out of the palace and sent him away to Mandi.
- Raja Janardhan built the fort of Taragarh.
Prithvi Singh (A.D. 1641)
- In 1641, Raja Jagat Singh of Nurpur revolted against Mughal(Shahjahan). Shahjahan sent a large army under prince Murad Baksh. Jagat Singh was in a good position with principal forts i.e. Mankot, ‘Nurpur’, and ‘Taragarh‘.
- Prithvi Singh of Chamba, took advantage of the Mughal attack on Jagat Singh to regain his lost Kingdom with help of Raja of Mandi and Suket.
- Jagat Singh surrendered to Mughals and later pardoned with the restoration of all honors.
- After recovering his kingdom he(Prithvi Singh) became first to built state office(Kothis) in Churah and Pangi.
- He is said to have visited Delhi nine times during the reign Shahjahan and obtain the family idol of Chamba Rajas, called Raghuvir from the emperor. This idol had been used as a weight in Mughal palace.
- Raghuvir yatra is held in Minjar Mela(7 days).
- He also went on pilgrimage to Prayag, Kashi, and Gaya.
- In 1648, the dispute between Prithvi Singh and Sangram Pal over the possession of Bhalai pargana was finally settled by a Mughal officer in favor of Chamba.
- From the time of Prithvi Singh, the old suffix of Varman was totally dropped. During his reign, Batlu(the nurse) constructed the temples at Khajiar, Hidimba at Mahal, and Sita Ram at Chamba.
Chattar Singh (A.D. 1664)
- In copper plates, his name appears as Shastru Singh, but Chattar Singh is the name used in common.
- He sent his brother Jai Singh who was Wazir too, to Sangram Pal of Basholi to demand Bhalai Ilaqa but he refused. Chattar Singh invaded Basholi and reoccupied Bhalai which was given by his father to Sangram.
- In 1678, he refused to obey the order of Aurangzeb to demolish all Hindu temples in the state.
- When Aurangzeb came to know, he summoned the Raja to Delhi. He(Chattar Singh) sent his brother Shokat Singh, who was accompanied by Raj Singh(Raja of Guler), but they turned back before reaching Delhi.
- A confederation of Chattar Singh of Chamba, Raj Singh of Guler, Dhiraj Pal of Basohli, and Kirpal Deo of Jammu stopped Mirza Beg, Viceroy of Punjab, who used to make incursions into the hills.
- In 1646-47 Ladakh and Lahaul were invaded by Tibet, But later in 1663-64, combined forces of Chamba and Kullu expelled the Tibetans and divided the Lahaul country between them.
- He died in 1690.
Udai Singh (A.D. 1690)
- His uncle and Wazir, Jai Singh runs the state smoothly. But soon after the accession of Udai Singh, his uncle Jai Singh died.
- Udai Singh was not good at administration and surrendered himself to sexual pleasures.
- He even appointed a barber his wazir with whose daughter Raja had fallen in love.
- The officials deposed him and appointed Ugar Singh, a cousin of Raja. But within a month, Udai Singh was restored. Ugar Singh fled to Jammu.
- The officials of the state then formed a conspiracy with Lakshman Singh, to kill Udai Singh. But at the last moment, Lakshman Singh decided to stand beside his brother.
- Later, Lakshman Singh was killed by officials and Udai Singh was mortally wounded.
- Udai Singh died in AD 1720. Both brothers had no child to succeed to the throne.
Umed Singh (A.D. 1720)
- After Udai Singh’s restoration to the throne, Ugar Singh fled to Jammu without enclosing his identity, he serves as a soldier of ‘Dhruv Dev‘, Raja of Jammu.
- One day, he controlled a mad(mast) elephant and cut the trunk at one blow with his sword. When Raja of Jammu came to know about his connection with the Royal Family of Chamba, He sent Ugar Singh to Chamba with necessary help, where he was installed as Raja.
- Raja Ugar Singh erected a temple at a place where Udai Singh was killed. He built this temple to appease the ghost of the Udai Singh, which used to appear to Ugar Singh in dreams. He also imposed a small tax known as ‘Tusera Udai Singhiana Auteriana‘ for maintenance of the temple.
- Soon after his accession, Ugar Singh earned disfavor of the officials.
To depose Umed Singh and raise Dalel Singh (cousin of Ugar Singh) to the throne, they first released Dalel Singh from the Mughal imprisonment by paying 1 lakh rupees.
- Ugar Singh did not oppose the appointment of Dalel, but he set fire to the town and also broke down the bridge over Ravi. Umed Singh then retired to the Chamunda temple and finally fled to Kangra, where he died.
Dalel Singh (A.D. 1735)
- Having secured the gaddi(throne), he put Ugar Singh’s two sons in prison in Lahore where they remained for thirteen years. After thirteen years they managed to escape but they were captured and brought back.
- When Viceroy came to know the fact about them, he helped Umed Singh to recover his territory.
- Dalel Singh voluntarily abdicated the throne in favor of Umed Singh and later became a Sadhu.
- In AD 1744, Pathiyar pargana was granted as Jagir to Raj Dalel Singh by a sanad.
Umed Singh (A.D. 1748)
- During his time, Mughal empire was in the throes of dissolution. His extended the territory to the South of Dhauladhar upto the border of Mandi.
- The fort of Pathiyar was also garrisoned by his troops and Bir- Bangahal was under his influence. A palace at ‘Nada‘ was also built and this place was named Rajnagar(after his son Raj Singh).
- He also laid the foundation of ‘Rang Mahal of Chamba‘.
- He died in AD 1764, and left orders that no Rani was to become sati at his funeral.
Raj Singh (A.D. 1764)
- He was only nine years old when his father Umed Singh’s died.
- Ghamand Chand of Kangra, took advantage of this situation and seized the fort of Pathiyar and drove out the Chamba forces.
- But the queen, who was a Jammu princess, obtained help from ‘Ranjit Deo’ of the Jammu.
- Ranjit Deo of Jammu appointed one of his own officials named ‘Aklu‘ to the office of Wazir. When Raj Singh came of age, he removed Aklu from the position of wazir and put him to prison.
- It was taken by Ranjit Deo as a personal insult and he sent an army under ‘Amrit Pal’ of Basholi. Raj Singh took the help of Ramgarhia Sardars to recover his territory. In 1775, he married to the daughter of Sampat Pal of Bhadrawah, Bhadrawah became tributary of Chamba.
In 1782, he conquered Basholi but restored after payment of a 1 lakh rupees.
- In 1786, he sent an army under Jit Singh (only 11 years old) to capture Kishtwar state on the invitation of the Brij Raj Deo of Jammu. Kishtwar was held for six months.
- Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra, demanded ‘Rihlu’ area from Raj Singh, as having been part of Kangra.
- He(Raj Singh) obtained help from Nurpur and battle took place near Shahpur in which Raja Raj Singh of Chamba was killed in 1794.
- Churah was standing cause of dispute between Chamba and Basholi.
- In 1794, a final attempt was made by Basholi aided by Jammu to recover the territory.
- Nikka, Ranjha, Chhajju, and Harku were his court artists.
Jit Singh (A.D. 1794)
- Soon after his accession, he had a war with Basholi. Raja Bijai Pal of Basholi was in the habit of making inroads in areas of Chamba.
- In AD 1803, the majority of hill states had come under the suzerainty of the Sansar Chand.
- In AD 1804-05, When Raja Mahan Chand of Bilaspur, invited the Gurkhas(Commander Amar Singh Thapa) to invade Kangra. The Chamba also sent help under Nathu Wazir.
- In AD 1809, Kangra, after the defeat of Gurkhas, Kangra was reduced to a feudatory of the Sikhs.
- From AD 1809, Chamba with other states under Kangra became tributary to Lahore.
- Jit Singh died in AD 1808.
Charhat Singh (A.D. 1808)
- He was only six years old when he was installed as Raja. During this time, the administration remains in the hands of the Rani Sharda and wazir Nathu. Rani Sharda erected the temple of ‘Radha-Krishna’ in 1825.
- Chief Pahar Chand of Bhadrawah, refused to pay tribute to Chamba. At Padri pass Nathu Wazir was defeated.
- In AD 1821, Nathu obtained help from Maharaj Ranjit Singh and forced Pahar Chand to flee, never return. Since then, Bhadrawah came under the direct control of the Chamba. In 1833, Raja appointed his younger brother Zorawar Singh as Raja of Bhadrawah.
- In AD 1821, Dessa Singh Majithia claimed the Rihlu fort and adjoining area.
- In A.D. 1815, Bir Singh of Nurpur, brother-in-law of Chamba Raja was expelled from his principality by Maharaj Ranjit Singh. Bir Singh attempted twice in 1826 and 1846 but failed.
- In A.D. 1820 -25, Ratnu, an official in Padar, invaded the Zanskar area and made it tributary to the state(Chamba).
- Chatargarh was renamed as Gulabgarh by Jammu Raja Gulab Singh in 1835.
- Wazir Nathu died in 1838 and was succeeded by wazir Bhaga also a member of ‘Baratru Family’.
- In February 1839, Chamba was for the first time visited by a European, Mr. Vigne.
- Also in the same year, Chamba was visited by General Cunningham to examine the archaeological remains in the state, at the capital and Bharmaur.
- His younger brother Zorawar Singh is still remembered in Chamba, for the respect he used to give to his elder brother.
- Charhat Singh never visited Lahore himself, but always sent Zorawar Singh instead.
- Zorawar Singh died in 1844.
Sri Singh (A.D. 1844)
- On his accession to the throne, he was five years old and all powers remained in the hands of his mother.
- During his time, Bhadrawah was annexed by Jammu.
- In the beginning years of Sri Singh’s reign, Lakar Shah(a Brahmin), a new issue of the Chamba copper coin was made and it is still called ‘Lakar-Shahi‘, after him. he was killed by officials because of his interference in Chamba administration.
- Bhaga Wazir with two officials had gone to Lahore, were imprisoned and an army was dispatched to invade Chamba. Rani took Sri Singh and fled up the Ravi valley. The capital was looted by the Sikh army.
- In AD 1846, after the first Anglo-Sikh war, hilly areas between the Beas and the Satluj and Jallandhar Doab came into British control.
- Later Chamba was excluded from the treaty but Bhadrawah was lost forever.
- Under a Sanad, Chamba was conferred to Sri Singh in 1848.
- On Sir Donald Macleed’s recommendations, the new sanitorium was named Dalhousie.
- During the revolt of 1857, Sri Singh was loyal to the Government and sent help to Dalhousie under Mian Autar Singh. Wazir Bhaga retired in 1854 and was succeeded by Wazir Billu till 1860.
- During the reign of Sri Singh, Chamba came under the influence of the British regime.
- Due to bad economic state, Raja was asked for the services of an officer from the British officer and Major Blair Reid was appointed superintendent of Chamba in 1863.
- After that, forts of Taragarh, Ganeshgarh, and Prithvigarh were handed over to local state officials.
- In 1863, a post office and a primary school were opened in the capital.
- In 1864, the State Forest Department was leased to the Government for 99 years, subject to revision after every 20 years.
- In December 1866 a hospital was opened.
- The Raja’s Dalhousie residence, ‘Jandrighat, was erected in 1870-71.
- Almost all departments went through reforms and income from revenue touched an all-time high mark in 1870.
- He died in 1870 after a short illness.
- His only son died in infancy.
Gopal Singh (A.D. 1870)
- He was the younger brother of Sri Singh.
Their youngest brother, Mian Suchet Singh, who had also laid claim to the gaddi.
- Several new roads were constructed in the state and efforts were made to beautify the Chamba town.
- Primary school at Chamba was raised to the middle standard.
In 1871, Chamba was visited by Lord Mayo, Governor-General of India.
- In 1873, Gopal Singh abdicated the throne in favor of his eldest son Sham Singh.
Sham Singh (A.D. 1873)
- Sham Singh was only of seven years old on his accession. Mian Autur Singh was appointed as Wazir till his retirement in 1878.
- In 1875, Raja Sham Singh was present at the imperial Darbar in Delhi. In 1876, he visited Lahore with other chiefs to meet the Prince of Wales, being the youngest ruling chief. In 1877, he took part in the great proclamation Darbar at Delhi.
- Mr. John Harrey was appointed tutor to the Raja in 1878.
- Hop-Growing was introduced in 1880 with great success but was soon abandoned in 1886, owing to the difficulties in the process of drying.
- In 1881, a Branch Dispensary was opened at Tissa.
- In AD 1880, in Poddar, a Sapphire (a precious stone of blue color) mine was discovered under the control of Jammu state.
- Raja Sham Singh was invested with full powers as a ruling chief by Colonel C.A. McMohan, commissioner of Lahore.
- Diwan Govind Chand was Wazir.
- Sheetla Bridge on river Ravi was constructed which was later damaged by the flood in 1894.
- In 1900, Chamba was visited by Viceroy and Lady Curzon.
- He abdicated his throne to his younger brother Bhuri Singh due to illness in 1904.
Bhuri Singh (A.D. 1904-1919)
- He was installed as raja by Sir Charles Rivaz, lieutenant governor of Punjab. He received the Knighthood distinction from Emperor in 1906.
- In 1907, he was present at the Viceregal Darbar, Agra to meet the Amir of Afghanistan.
- The famous Bhuri Singh Museum was inaugurated in 1908.
- A powerhouse was installed on river Sal in the vicinity of the town and the town was electrified in 1910.
- He helped Britishers in the World War-I, for which he was honored with Knighthood, the most eminent order of the Indian empire.
- Suddenly on 18th September 1919, Raja had a stroke and died.
Tikka Ram Singh (A.D. 1919)
- He was installed as Raja in March 1920.
- On 1st November 1921, the state came under the direct control of the government of India in the political department.
- The road from Chamba to Nurpur was realigned and completed up to the state border.
- The drainage system was provided in the Chamba town to improve sanitation. A big tank was constructed, to overcome water scarcity during summer, .
- Raja Ram Singh died in 1935 in Lahore.
Raja Lakshman Singh (A.D. 1935)
- Raja Lakshman Singh born on 8 December 1924 and educated at Aitchison Chief,s College Lahore.
- When he was installed as Raja, he was a minor and the state remained under the council of administrators.
- In 1948, Chamba was merged with Himachal Pradesh. On 15th April 1948, the Chamba district was formed as a separate administrative unit. At that time, Chamba had three tehsils and two sub-tehsils.