Geographical Regions of H.P.-Himachal Pradesh can be divided into the following geophysical zones based on the characteristics of various physical elements related to the relief.
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Shivalik hills (Geographical Regions of H.P.)
- known as Manak Parvat
- also known as “tresses of the shiva”.
- elevation- 350 m to 1500 m (1050 feet to 4500 m) above mean sea level.
- Annual rainfall of this zone- 1500 mm to 1800 mm.
- these hills are the youngest part of Himalayas.
- lowest hills of districts-
Kangra– Nurpur, Dehra, Jwali & Palampur tehsils.
Mandi – Balh valley, Joginder Nagar area.
Sirmaur – Paonta valley, Nahan tehsil.
Chamba – Dalhousie, Bhattiyat, Churah.
& Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur & Solan are part of it.
- composed of unconsolidated deposits (prone to erosion)-leads to formation of small streams (Chos).
- Stone-embeded shallow & loam to clay soils are found.
- Area suitable for cultivation of- maize, wheat, ginger, sugarcane, paddy, table potatoes & Citrus fruits.
- Crest line– Hathi Dhar, Sikandar Dhar, Chaumukhi range, Solasinghi Dhar, Ramgarh Dhar, Naina Devi Dhar and Dharti Dhar.
Inner Himalayas or Mid Mountains (Geographical Regions of H.P.)
- elevation-1500 m to 4500 m (4500 feet to 13500 feet) above mean sea level.
- It is marked by gradual elevation towards Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges.
- Hills of distt-
Kangra – upper parts of Kangra & Palampur tehsils
Mandi – Chachiot & Karsog tehsils
Sirmaur– upper areas of Pachhad & Renuka tehsils
Chamba – Dalhousie, Bhattiyat & Chorah areas -upper part.
Shimla – Choordhar (3,647m) peak (also – Choor Chandani)
- It is composed of granite and other related rocks (from Carboniferans to Eeocene)
- Soils – silty loam to clay loam of dark brown colour which is useful for seed potatoes & temperate fruit. Such soil is found in areas of Pachhad, Renuka, Arki, Solan, Jogindernagar, Kangra, Palampur, Dalhousie, Chamba, Upper Bhattiyat & Churah.
- Soil of upper parts of Shimla distt, Sirmaur & Chamba is shallower in depth, with silty loam to loam of dark brown colour – useful for-horticulture-stone & soft fruits. (Geographical Regions of H.P.)
Two famous ranges
Dhauladhar (means White Peak)
- lies in Kangra, Chamba & Mandi, Kullu, Shimla & Sirmaur.
- Kangra valley is a longitudinal & an open long tract at the foot of Dhauladhar.
- branches off from great Himalayan range near Badrinath ( in Uttrakhand).
- It is intercepted by Satluj at Rampur, by Beas at Larji and by the Ravi near South-West of Chamba.
- Northern flank of D. Dhar impinges against the Southern flank of Pir Panjal at Bara Banghal.
- largest of lesser Himalayan range, the Pir Panjal, separates from greater Himalaya range near bank of Satluj; forming the divide between Chenab on one side and the Beas & the Ravi on the other.
- It bends towards the Dhauladhar new Bara Banghal.
- some minor ranges – Dagni Dhar, Manimahesh & Dhog Dhar in the Ravi ralley,
- Jalori Dhar & Shikari Dhar in Beas & Satluj basin.
- Nagtibba range, Missouri range and Shimla hills in Yamuna basin.
- The largest of the lesser Himalayan range, the ‘Pir Panjal’, separates from the greater Himalayan range near the bank of the Satluj, forming the water-divide between the Chenab on one side and the Beas and the Ravi on the other.
The Greater Himalayas or Alpine zone
- elevation-4500 m and above
- To north of Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges known as the Greater Himalaya and Zanskar ranges.
- this range runs along the Eastern boundary and is cut across by the Satluj.
- range separates drainage of Spiti from that of Beas.
- Soil-is of high texture with variable fertility.
- Climate is temperate in summer and semi-arctic in winter.
- Climate & Soil- best suited for- cultivation of dry fruits.
- some famous passes.
Chamba– Sach pass, Chini pass, Chabia pass and Kugti pass.
Lahaul & Spiti – Rohtang pass, Kunzampass, Baralacha pass, Hamta pass and
- famous ‘Zanskar range’ falls in this range.
- It is Eastern most range and separates Spiti and Kinnaur from Tibet.
- Zanskar range is cut across by the Satluj.